ARHEOLOGIE

THE LATIN LANGUAGE IN THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ROMAN DACIA

Eugenia Beu-Dachin

carte
ISBN 978-606-543-513-1
Anul apariției: 2014
Format: B5
Nr. pagini: 276
Copertă cartonată

“The author of the present book is different from many of the foreign or Romanian researchers who have dealt with the topic through her rich background, not only in linguistics, but also in history and epigraphy. This means that, before everything else, she ordered the epigraphic material and used correct readings.
I am among those who believe that Latin epigraphy is not an independent science, not even an auxiliary one, but a research method through which one can access all compartments of Roman society and discover not only how people wrote, but also how they spoke Latin in a certain province. During the second and third centuries AD there were probably no clear differences yet between the ways of speaking Latin in the different areas of the Roman Empire, or we cannot see them now. Anyway, Dacia is worth taking into consideration not only through the number of known inscriptions, almost 5000 of them, but also through their complexity. Besides a large number of texts written according to official or fashionable formularies, there are juridical texts, like those on the wax tablets from Alburnus Maior, poetic texts, and some of the so-called «primitive» texts that best preserve the forms of Vulgar Latin from which the Romance languages have originated. The two extremes of epigraphy in Roman Dacia are undoubtedly the votorum carmen from Sarmizegetusa, that preserve archaic forms since the time of the Roman Republic, and the inscription on a brick from Gornea, the lexicon and contents of which still generate comments. The research of the morphology and syntax of such texts contributes to our knowledge of the Latin language spoken throughout the Roman Empire. In the future, new inscriptions will undoubtedly add new aspects to those revealed by the author here, but this is the fate of all studies of Antiquity. The accomplishment is not to find the whole truth, since this is impossible, but to search for it with competence and in the spirit of good faith.
The author of this book is well prepared for such an initiative. Her deep knowledge of the classical languages and their development, her contact with the most recent specialized literature, her rigorous method, and the caution typical to her are the guarantee of success. I salute the publication of one of the most important books focusing on Latin epigraphy from Dacia and the Latin spoken in the provinces of the Empire.” (Ioan Piso)


CONTENTS


Abbreviations

List of ancient settlements

INTRODUCTION

1. PHONETICS
1.1. The vowels
1.1.1. The vowel a
1.1.2. The vowel e
1.1.3. The vowel i
1.1.4. The vowel o
1.1.5. The vowel u
1.1.6. The vowel y
1.1.7. The diphthongs
1.1.8. The vowels in hiatus
1.1.9. The epenthesis
1.2. The consonants
1.2.1. The labials p, b
1.2.2. The dentals t, d
1.2.3. The gutturals (velars)
1.2.4. The aspirated sound h
1.2.5. The sibilants s, z and the double consonant x
1.2.6. The nasals m, n
1.2.7. The liquid consonants l, r
1.2.8. The fall of u consonans
1.2.9. The geminated consonants
1.2.10. The final consonants
1.2.11. The dissimilation: ll > nl
1.2.12. Spelling problems

2. MORPHOLOGY
2.1. The name
2.1.1. The first declension
2.1.2. The second declension
2.1.3. The third declension
2.1.4. The fourth declension
2.1.5. The fifth declension
2.1.6. The gender
2.2. The adjective
2.2.1. The comparison of the adjective
2.2.2. Pientissimus versus piissimus
2.2.3. The excess of superlatives
2.3. The pronoun
2.4. The numeral
2.4.1. Dua instead of duo
2.5. The verb
2.5.1. Changes in the morphological structure of the Latin verb attested in Dacia

3. SYNTAX
3.1. The agreement
3.1.1. The agreement in number
3.1.2. The agreement in case
3.1.3. The agreement in gender
3.1.4. The agreement in person
3.2. Sentence syntax
3.2.1. The names
3.2.2. The pronoun
3.2.3. The verb
3.2.4. Inflexible parts of speech
3.2.5. The ellipsis

4. THE LEXICON

CONCLUSIONS

Bibliography